much less than for low-fertility countries. For example, in 196' Kingdom used 6 percent of its GNP for education, while Gl percent. But the school-age population (5 to 19 years) was abou of the total population in Ghana and 22 percent in the Unite Thus Britain used nearly twice as large a percentage of its GNP the school-age population as did Ghana. In absolute terms, the ! dom, with a GNP per capita of $1,800, spent about $500 f education, and Ghana, out of a total GNP per capita of $300, S] capita, or about $40 per child.
Education in the developing countries is further handicapped that educational costs per child in schools, in terms of per cap tend to be relatively high. The differential in incomes between e uneducated people is much larger than in the developed countrie: quently the ratio of teachers' salaries (which constitute 60 to 8' educational costs) to per capita incomes is commonly two or thr ratio in developed countries.
Percent of National Income That Can Be Devoted to Education
The low incomes of developing countries are not in themse barrier to the channeling of substantial proportions of income int provided governments give education a sufficiently high priority to raise the necessary taxes. There is a wide variation among coun the average they spend about 3.5 percent of national income o But there does not appear to be much correlation between per and the percentage of national income devoted to education. A' per capita GNP, this percentage varies widely, from 1.5 to \ Ethiopia, Pakistan, Nicaragua, and Portugal to about 6 percer Ivory Coast, Cuba, and Libya, and more than 8 percent in Tunisia. Expenditures per child of school age have an even greater less than $5 to more than $75.
Future Increases in Enrollment Ratios
In spite of the rapid expansion of education in the less dew tries, the absolute numbers of illiterates in these countries inc 1950 to 1965 because of the population factor; the number of cln primary age group rose more rapidly than the number being ei ucational planners in Africa, Asia, and Latin America arc aiming of this situation in the future by raising enrollment ratios to abov as rapidly as possible.
Time Required to Raise Enrollment Ratios. In many coun I increase in enrollment ratios would be extremely difficult and consumption rather than savings.